of the American Naturopathic
Dan Walter: Naturopathic Bill
By: Dan Walters -- Bee Columnist
For decades, members of specialized occupational groups have sought state-enforced professional licensure through the Legislature, thus gaining public status and official control over would-be competitors for customers.
For decades, practitioners of various medical care specialities have sought legislation to either expand the legal scopes of their practices (such as podiatrists seeking to perform ankle surgery or psychologists wanting the power to prescribe drugs), or restrict those of competitors.
SB 907, carried by the Legislature's most influential member, Senate President Pro Tem John Burton, encompasses both of those hoary political traditions. But it also represents another increasingly common trend: dabbling by Hollywood celebrities in pursuit of their pet political and social causes -- such as Arnold Schwarzenegger's after-school care initiative (which may also set him up to run for governor) or Rob Reiner's measure that raises cigarette taxes for health care expansion.
SB 907's celebrity champion is Stephen Bing, who inherited a $600 million real estate fortune at age 18 and over the past two decades has busily written screenplays, produced movies, contributed millions of dollars to Democratic politicians, underwritten environmental causes and wooed some of filmdom's most beautiful women. His tabloid index rose stratospherically last year when actress Elizabeth Hurley named him as the father of her son, he disputed his paternal role, and a DNA test confirmed that he was, indeed, Damian's daddy.
One would think that with movies, politics and a jet-setting love life, Bing would have enough on his plate. But he's also an ardent advocate of what's called "naturopathic medicine," an alternative form of health care that relies on herbs, massage, magnets and other treatments. And he's playing a role -- although how large is unclear -- in promoting SB 907. The measure would license "naturopathic doctors" in California and empower them to perform a variety of medical functions, including attending childbirths.
The California Association of Naturopathic Physicians and Bastyr University, a Washington-based institution that is, in the words of its spokesman, "the largest accredited school in naturopathic medicine," have retained Advocation Inc., one of the Capitol's best-connected lobbying firms, to push SB 907 through the Legislature and onto Gov. Gray Davis' desk. The bill has already cleared the Senate.
Not surprisingly, SB 907 has drawn opposition from groups representing traditional medicine, such as the California Medical Association. Mainstream physicians are leery about the efficacy of naturopathy but also dislike others using the title of "doctor." Chiropractors, meanwhile, don't want naturopaths intruding on their specialty of "manipulation" of body parts.
The strongest opposition, however, is coming from other adherents of naturopathy who oppose having physician status or performing some of the functions allowed in the Burton bill. Even more oddly, Burton carried legislation just last year that gave legal recognition to naturopathy but stopped short of the scope of practice in his new bill.
"They (the naturopathic opponents) see themselves as the true believers of naturopathic medicine," says Sandy Cutler, Bastyr's senior counsel.
If Burton's measure reaches Davis, a gubernatorial signature is highly likely, since Bing is a major supporter. He has not only given Davis hundreds of thousands of dollars over the past few years, but has also contributed millions to the Democratic Party and just recently popped $100,000 into the war chest being raised to defend Davis against a recall.
Burton describes Bing as "a good guy" for his support of various causes -- contributions that have included $1 million to Bastyr. "Stephen is a supporter of Bastyr and a believer in natural medicine," Cutler says. "We're glad to have his support."
While Burton and Cutler minimize Bing's role in SB 907, those involved with the bill in the Capitol say that it has been given a fast track because of Burton's authority and Bing's involvement, while opponents are trying to make as little noise as possible for fear of angering the volatile Senate leader.
And, as with all medical turf battles, whether SB 907 lives or dies has everything to do with politics and nothing to do with whether it enhances or imperils the health of Californians.
The President's Corner
By: Jane Carter
The California legislature isconsidering SB 907, a bill to license "naturopathic physicians". SB 907 sets up a Bureau of Naturopathic Medicine within the Department of Consumer Affairs and regulates naturopathic physicians, denying you the right to practice as a naturopath. If SB 907 passes, it could force you to close your practice, or prevent you from opening a practice in naturopathy.
The key provision of the bill requires that to be licensed, you must be a graduate of an approved naturopathic medical education program accredited by the Council on Naturopathic Medical Education(CNME), or an equivalent federally recognized accrediting body. The only schools that will qualify under this rule will be Bastyr, National, or Bridgeport.
The resident graduates at best, are good actors, brainwashed into believing they are "medical physicians". A close look at faculty and administrators, will tell the truth of this "charade". These graduates do not have the necessary skills for the "medical" scope they are seeking. The resident school graduates are no more qualified than traditional naturopaths who did not attend one of these schools. The traditional naturopaths, however, would be denied the right to practice their profession. This bill is clearly a danger to the public, and the public’s "right to choose".
I urge you and your friends to contact your state representatives by telephone, e-mail, or letter, and ask them to OPPOSE SB 907. For obtaining information on SB 907 go to www.piperinfo.com. Click on the state of California, scroll down to legislature (assembly or senate). For bill information type in SB907. For a list of legislators, address and phone number, click on roster.
Your participation in this process is crucial if you wish to preserve your present, or future practice. Together we can protect Naturopathy from falling victim to special interest legislation and maintain the freedom to practice your profession. If you have any questions about this notice, please call or fax our office.
On another matter:
The 2003 convention will be July 18, 19, 20. ANMA has already had a tremendous response. We look forward to seeing you at the convention, which promises to be a fun filled enjoyable experience. See flyer for registration information.
The Truth About Vitamins in Supplements
By: Robert J Thiel, Ph.D., Naturopath
Abstract: Even though natural health professionals agree that humans should not try to consume petroleum derivatives or hydrogenated sugars, most seem to overlook this fact when vitamin supplementation is involved. This paper explains some of the biochemical reasons that food vitamins are superior for humans. It also explains what substances are commonly used to make vitamins in supplements. Furthermore, it explains some of the advantages of food vitamins over the non-food vitamins that are commonly available.
Thiel R. The truth about vitamins in supplements. ANMA Monitor, 2003, 6(2)
For decades the ‘natural’ health industry has been touting thousands of vitamin supplements. The truth is that most vitamins in supplements are made or processed with petroleum derivatives or hydrogenated sugars [1-5]. Even though they are often called natural, most non-food vitamins are isolated substances which are crystalline in structure . Vitamins naturally in food are not crystalline and never isolated. Vitamins found in any real food are chemically and structurally different from those commonly found in ‘natural vitamin’ formulas. Since they are different, naturopaths should consider non-food vitamins as vitamin analogues (imitations) and not actually vitamins.
The standards of naturopathy agreed to in 1947 included the statements, "Naturopathy does not make use of synthetic or inorganic vitamins...Naturopathy makes use of the healing properties of...natural foods, organic vitamins" . Even back in the 1940s, professionals interested in natural health recognized the value of food, over non-food, vitamins. Also, it should be mentioned that naturopathic definition of organic back then was similar to the official US government definition today—why does this need to be stated? Because one pseudo-naturopath once told this researcher that a particular brand of synthetic vitamins contained "organic vitamins", because a sales representative had told him so. Sadly, that sales representative either intentionally gave out false information or gave out misleading information—misleading because by its ‘scientific’ definition, the term ‘organic’ can mean that it is a carbon containing substance, hence by that definition all petroleum derivatives (hydro-carbons) are organic. But they are not organic from the naturopathic, or even the U.S. government’s, perspective.
Officially, according to mainstream science, "Vitamins are organic substances that are essential in small amounts for the health, growth, reproduction, and maintenance of one or more animal species, which must be included in the diet since they cannot be synthesized at all or in sufficient quantity in the body. Each vitamin performs a specific function; hence one cannot replace another. Vitamins originate primarily in plant tissues" . Isolated non-food ‘vitamins’ (often called ‘natural’ or USP or pharmaceutical grade) are not naturally "included in the diet", do not necessarily "originate primarily in plant tissues", and cannot fully replace all natural vitamin activities. As a natural health professional, you should be able to read and interpret, even misleading supplement labels. For those who are unsure, hopefully this article will provide sufficient information to determine if vitamin tablets are food or imitations.
What is Your Vitamin Really?
Most vitamins in supplements are petroleum extracts, coal tar derivatives, and chemically processed sugar (plus sometimes industrially processed fish oils), with other acids and industrial chemicals (such as formaldehyde) used to process them [1-5]. Synthetic vitamins were originally developed because they cost less . Assuming the non-food product does not contain fish oils, most synthetic, petroleum-derived, supplements will call their products ‘vegetarian’, not because they are from plants, but because they are not from animals. Most vitamins in vitamin supplements made from food are in foods such as acerola cherries, alfalfa sprouts, carrots, corn, grapefruit, lemons, limes, nutritional yeast, oranges, rice bran, soy beans, and tangerines (some companies also use animal products).
Table 1. Composition of Food and Non-Food Vitamins [1-10]
* Note: Although some companies use liver extracts as a source for vitamins A and/or D, no company this researcher is aware of whose products are made out of 100% food use animal products for any of their multiple vitamins. Some companies also use brewer’s yeast which is inferior to nutritional yeast in many ways (including the fact that it has not had the cell wall enzymatically processed to reduce possible sensitivities).
Read The Label to See the Chemical Differences!
Although many doctors have been taught that food and non-food vitamins have the same chemical composition, this is simply untrue for most vitamins. As shown in table 2, the chemical forms of food and synthetic nutrients are normally different. Health professionals need to understand that since there is no mandated definition of the term ‘natural’; just seeing that term on a label does not mean that the supplement contains only natural food substances. One of the best ways to tell whether or not a vitamin supplement contains natural vitamins as found in food is to know the chemical differences between food and non-food vitamins (sometimes called USP vitamins). Because they are not normally in the same chemical form as vitamins found in foods, non-food vitamins should be considered by naturopaths as vitamin analogues (artificial imitations), and not actually as true vitamins for humans.
Table 2. Chemical Form of Food and Non-Food Vitamins [1-10]
* Note: This list is not complete and new analogues are being developed all the time. Also the term "(isolated)" means that if the word "food" is not near the name of the substance, it is probably an isolate (normally crystalline in structure) and is not the same as the true vitamin found in food.
Read the label of any supplement to see if the product is truly 100% food. If even one USP vitamin analogue is listed, then the entire product is probably not food (normally it will be less than 5% food). Vitamin analogues are cheap (or not so cheap) imitations of vitamins found in foods.
Food Vitamins are Better than Non-Food Vitamins
Although many mainstream health professionals believe, "The body cannot tell whether a vitamin in the bloodstream came from an organically grown cantaloupe or from a chemist’s laboratory" , this belief is quite misleading for several reasons. First it seems to assume that the process of getting the amount of the vitamin into the bloodstream is the same (which is frequently not the case [3-10]). Secondly, scientists understand that particle size is an important factor in nutrient absorption even though particle size is not detected by chemical assessment. Thirdly, scientists also understand that, "The food factors that influence the absorption of nutrients relate not only to the nature of the nutrients themselves, but also their interaction with each other and with the nonabsorbable components of food" . Fourthly, "the physiochemical form of a nutrient is a major factor in bioavailability" (and food and non-food vitamins are not normally in the same form) . Fifthly, most non-food vitamins are crystalline in structure . Food vitamins are in the physiochemical forms which the body recognizes, generally are not crystalline in structure, contain food factors that affect bioavailability, and appear to have smaller particle sizes (see illustrations in table 3). This does not mean that non-food vitamins do not have any value (they clearly do), but it is important to understand that natural food complex vitamins have actually been shown to be better than isolated, non-food, vitamins (see table 4).
Electron microscopy indicates that isolated USP vitamins appear larger and have a crystalline appearance compared to vitamins in a foods which have more of a rounded and smaller appearance (see table 3).
Table 3. Physical and Structural Differences
Photographs from Electron Microscope (all taken at same magnification)
Even before there were electron microscopes, the late Dr. Royal Lee knew that food vitamin C was superior to ascorbic acid. "Dr. Lee felt it was not honest to use the name ‘vitamin C’ for ascorbic acid. That term ‘should be reserved for the vitamin C COMPLEX’" . Why then, according to the ingredients listed in a recent catalog, would a supplement company that Dr. Lee originally founded currently include ascorbic acid, inorganic mineral salts, and/or other isolated nutrients in the majority of its products? Dr. Lee, like the late Dr. Bernard Jensen , was also opposed to the use of other isolated, synthetic, nutrients . Dr. Lee specifically wrote, "In fact, the Food & Drug laws seem to be suspended where synthetic imitations of good foods are concerned, and actually perverted to prosecute makers and sellers of real products…The synthetic product is always a simple chemical substance, while the natural is a complex mixture of related and similar materials…Pure natural Vitamin E was found three times as potent as pure synthetic Vitamin E. Of course the poisonous nature of the synthetic Vitamin D…is well established. WHY DO NOT THE PEOPLE AND MEDICAL MEN KNOW THESE FACTS? Is it because the commercial promoters of cheap imitation food and drug products spend enough money to stop the leaking out of information?" .
Table 4. Comparison of Certain Biological Effects of Food and Non-Food Vitamins
The difference is more than quantitative. For example, even if one were to take 3.2 times as much of the so-called natural, non-food, ascorbic acid than food vitamin C, although the antioxidant effects might be similar in vitro, the ascorbic acid still will not contain DHAA , nor will it ever have negative oxidative reductive potential (ORP). An in vitro study performed at this researcher’s lab with a digital ORP meter demonstrated that a citrus food vitamin C has negative ORP, but that ascorbic acid had positive ORP. It takes negative ORP to clean up oxidative damage , and since ascorbic acid has positive ORP (as well as positive redox potential ), it can never replace food vitamin C no matter what the quantity! Furthermore, foods which are high in vitamin C tend to have high Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity (ORAC, another test which measures the ability of foods and other compounds to subdue oxygen free radicals ). A US government study which compared the in vivo effects of a high vitamin C food (80 mg of vitamin C) compared to about 15.6 times as much isolated ascorbic acid (1250 mg) found that the vitamin C-containing food produced the greatest increase in blood antioxidant levels (it is believed that bioflavonoids and other food factors are responsible) . Furthermore, it is even possible isolated ascorbic acid only has in vitro and no in vivo antioxidant effects —yet high vitamin C foods have both [27,29].
Let’s take vitamin E as another example—the body has a specific liver transport for the type of vitamin E found in food —it does not have this for the synthetic vitamin E forms (nor for the ‘new’ vitamin E analogues that are frequently marketed)—thus no amount of synthetic vitamin E can truly equal food vitamin E—the human body actually tries to rid itself of synthetic vitamin E as quickly as possible . As another example, it should be understood that certain forms of vitamin analogues of B-6 , D , and biotin  have been shown to have almost no vitamin activity.
Fractionated, synthetic, vitamins do not replace all the natural function of food vitamins in the body. This is due to the fact that they are normally chemically and structurally different (they also do not have the naturally occurring food factors which are needed by the body) from vitamins found in foods (or vitamin supplements made up entirely of foods).
Food Vitamins and Non-Food Vitamin Analogues
Vitamin A/Betacarotene: Naturally exists in foods, yet it is not a single compound, with the vitamin A primarily existing in the form of retinyl esters, and not retinol and the beta carotene is always in the presence of mixed carotenoids with chlorophyll . Vitamin A acetate is from methanol, it is a retinol which is crystalline in structure . Vitamin A palmitate can be fish oil  or synthetically derived ; but once isolated it bears little resemblance to food and can be crystalline in structure [1,2]. Synthetic betacarotene is "prepared from condensing aldehyde (from acetone) with acetylene" ; "not much natural beta-carotene is available due to the high costs of production" .
Vitamin B-1, Thiamin: Vitamin B-1 exists in food in the forms of thiamin pyrophosphate, thiamin monophosphate, and thiamin . The non-food thiamin mononitrate is a coal tar derivative , never naturally found in the body , and is a crystalline isolate  (the same is true for thiamin hydrochloride and other chloride forms).
Vitamin B-2, Riboflavin: Naturally exists as riboflavin and various co-enzyme forms in food . In non-foods it is most often synthetically made with 2N acetic acid, is a single form isolate, and is crystalline in structure .
Vitamin ‘B-3’, Niacinamide: Primarily exists in foods in forms other than niacin . Isolated, non-food, niacinamide is normally from 3-cyanopyridine and can form crystals . Non-food ‘niacin’ is "synthesized from acetaldehyde through several chemical reactions: .
Vitamin ‘B-5’, Pantothenate: Naturally exists in foods as pantothenate . Non-food pantothenic acid consists of pantoic acid in amide linkage to beta-alanine ; no pantothenic acid is naturally found in any food . Non-food pantoic acid is normally made by condensing isobutyraldehyde with formaldehyde, then condensed with hydrocyanic acid. Calcium pantothenate is a synthetic enantiomer  and is a calcium salt  and is crystalline .
Vitamin B-6: Plants naturally primarily contain vitamin B6 in forms such as 5’0-(beta-D-glycopyransosyl) and other pyridoxines, not pyridoxal forms . Pyridoxine hydrochloride is not naturally found in the body , is a crystalline isolate , and is generally made from petroleum and hydrochloric acid and processed with formaldehyde . Pyridoxal-5-phosphate is made by combining phosphorus oxychloride and/or adenosine triphosphate with pyridoxal ; it becomes a crystalline isolate  and bears almost no resemblance to food vitamin B6.
Vitamin ‘B-9’, Folate: The vitamin once known as B-9 exists in foods as folate (also known as pteroylglutamate) . Ptyeoylglutamic acid, the common pharmacological (USP) form known as folic acid, is not found in foods, nor significantly as such in the body . Folic acid is a crystalline isolate  and involves petroleum derivatives in its synthesis .
Vitamin B-12: The naturally active forms are methylcobalamin and deoxyadenosylcobalamin and are found in food . Cyanocobalamin is not a naturally active form ; it is a mixture of cobalamins and cyanide and is an isolate, which is crystalline in structure .
Vitamin B-x, Vitamin B-8, Vitamin B factors: PABA was once called vitamin B-x, while inositol was once called vitamin B-8. They and choline are vitamin B co-factors. The non-food versions are made from coal tar (PABA), ethylene (choline), and phytin processed with sulfuric acid (inositol) .
Vitamin C: Naturally occurs in fruits in two ascorbate forms with bioflavonoids . Non-food, so-called ‘natural’ ascorbic acid is made by fermenting corn sugar into sorbitol, then hydrogenating it until it turns into sorbose, then acetone (commonly referred to as nail polish remover) is added to break the molecular bonds which creates isolated, crystalline, ascorbic acid. It does not contain both vitamin C forms (nor bioflavonoids), thus is too incomplete to properly be called vitamin C . The patented ‘vitamin C’ compounds that are touted as less acidic than ascorbic acid also are not food (it is not possible to get a US patent on naturally occurring vitamins as found in food—anytime a health professional hears that some vitamin is patented, that should set off warning signals that it is not real food).
Vitamin D: Vitamin D is not an isolate, it exists as a combination of substances (including vitamin D3), with promoting metabolites . Non-food vitamin analogues D1, D2, D3, and D4 are isolates without the promoting metabolites. USP D1 does not have appreciable antirachitic effects , is crystalline, and is made with benzene . USP D2 is considered a synthetic form and is made by bombarding ergosterol with electrons  and is "recovered by solvent extraction" . USP D3 and D4 are both made through irradiating animal fat [1,10,31] or through irradiating "the spinal cords and brains of cattle" . Scientists are even developing a ‘new’ form of vitamin D (which is admitted to be an analogue) which is supposed to be helpful for osteoporosis —natural vitamins cannot be invented! The fact that some drugs are chemically similar to vitamin D as found in foods, does not make them true vitamins. Perhaps it should be added here that the first form of vitamin D added to milk to help prevent rickets, not only did not work as the scientists said it would, it actually resulted in unnatural bone deformities .
Vitamin E: Natural vitamin E as found in Foods is [d]-alpha tocopherol (also called RRR-alpha tocopherol) and is never found as an isolate . Interestingly, the human body has a special liver transfer protein for the food form of vitamin E which it does not have for the synthetic forms . Synthetic forms include [dl]-alpha tocopherol (also called all-rac-alpha-tocopherol), mixed tocopherols, and any including the term acetate. Synthetic vitamin E is produced by commercially coupling trimethylhydroquinone (TMHQ) with isophytol . This chemical reaction produces a difficult-to-separate mixture, though each USP E form is an isolate. The so-called ‘natural’ forms are most frequently in supplements as isolates, a way they are never found in nature.
Vitamin ‘H’, Biotin: The only active form found in nature is d-(+) biotin and is usually protein bound . Non-food biotin is normally an isolated, synthesized, crystalline form that is not protein bound . Biotin l-sulfoxide is a lessor used isolated and/or non-food form, involves pimelic acid, is an isolate, and has less than 1% of the vitamin H activity of food biotin .
Vitamin K: Vitamin K naturally is found in plants as phylloquinone . Non-food vitamin K3 menadione is now recognized as dangerous and is a synthetic naphthoquinone derivative (naphthalene is a coal tar derivative) . USP K1, though also called phylloquinone, is an isolate normally synthesized with p-allylic-nickel . There is another form of vitamin K inadvertently formed during the hydrogenation of oils called dihydro-vitamin K1 ; however since the consumption of hydrogenated oils appears to be dangerous , it does not seem that this form would be indicated for most humans.
Types of Available Vitamins
There are really only two types of vitamins sold: food vitamins and non-food vitamins. Food vitamins will normally state something like "100% Food" on the label. Sometimes the label will also state "No USP nutrients" or "No synthetic nutrients".
Non-food vitamins, however are somewhat less obvious. First of all, no non-food vitamin this researcher has seen says "100% food" on the label and none of them state ‘No USP or synthetic nutrients"—thus if none of these expressions are present, it is normally safe to conclude that the vitamins are not from food. If a label states that the product contains USP vitamins or ‘pharmaceutical grade’ nutrients, then it should be obvious to all naturopathic practitioners that the product is not food.
However, just because a company uses the term ‘natural’ or ‘all natural’ as a description of its vitamins does not make them, in fact, natural—this is because the US Government has no definition of natural! Also, just because a company may have a reputation for having natural products, this does not mean its vitamins are not synthetic—carefully check the label for proof that the product is truly 100% food.
Some companies seem to confuse the issue by using the term ‘food-based’ on their supplement labels. ‘Food-based’ vitamins are almost always USP vitamins mixed with a small amount of food. This mixing does not change the chemical form of the vitamin, so it is still a vitamin analogue and not a food vitamin (this differs from food, as true food vitamins are not simple mixture [i.e. 36]).
Some other companies (that do not use the term ‘food-based’) mix foods with the vitamin analogue and seem to imply that the vitamin is a food. For example, if a label states something like Vitamin C (Vitamin C, acerola) then it is also normally a synthetic mixed with a food. If the product were a food, it would normally state that the vitamin C was in food or from acerola and not use the term ‘vitamin C’ twice in a row on the label (many companies mix ascorbic acid with acerola).
Many companies use the term ‘yeast-free’ on their synthetic vitamin labels, apparently implying that yeast should not be used in vitamins. There are a couple of problems with this. The first is that several non-food isolated vitamins are produced by yeast, before they are industrially processed and isolated, thus it is unlikely that any multiple vitamin formula has not been partially made up of yeast, yeast extracts, or yeast by-products [1,2]. The second problem is that nutritional yeast is not the same as brewer’s yeast, which is essentially a waste by-product. Nutritional yeast is beneficial to humans and can help combat various infections , including according to the German E monograph, Candida albicans. In the text, Medical Mycology John Rippon (Ph.D., Mycology, University of Chicago) wrote, "There are over 500 known species of yeast, all distinctly different. And although the so-called ‘bad yeasts’ do exist, the controversy in the natural foods industry regarding yeast related to health problems which is causing many health-conscious people to eliminate all yeast products from their diet is ridiculous." It should also be noted, that the late W. Crook, M.D., who was perhaps the nation’s best known expert on Candida albicans, wrote "yeasty foods don’t encourage candida growth...Eating a yeast-containing food does not make candida organisms multiply" . Some people, however, are allergic to the cell-wall of yeast  and concerned companies have the cell-wall enzymatically processed to reduce even this unlikely occurrence.
Most vitamins sold are not food—they are synthetically processed petroleum and/or hydrogenated sugar extracts—even if they say "natural" on the label. They are not in the same chemical form or structural form as real vitamins are in foods; thus they are not natural for the human body. True natural food vitamins are superior to synthetic ones . Food vitamins are functionally superior to non-food vitamins as they tend to be preferentially absorbed and/or retained by the body [3-8,14-26]. Isolated, non-food vitamins, even when not chemically different are only fractionated nutrients [1,3,8,16,18].
Studies suggest that the bioavailability of food vitamins is better than that of most isolated USP vitamins [e.g. 1, 17-26], that they may have better effects on maintaining aspects of human health beyond traditional vitamin deficiency syndromes [5,10,28], and at least some seem to be preferentially retained by the human body [8,17,26]. It is not always clear if these advantages are due to the physiochemical form of the vitamin, with the other food constituents that are naturally found with them, or some combination [3,16,20,33]. Regardless, it seems logical to conclude that for purposes of maintaining normal health, natural vitamins are superior to synthetic ones . Unlike some synthetic vitamins, no natural vitamin has been found to not perform all of its natural functions.
The truth is that only foods, or supplements composed of 100% foods, can be counted on as not containing non-food vitamin analogues. Naturopaths are supposed to build health on foods or nutrients contained in foods. That was the standard set for the profession in 1947—that standard—that commitment to real naturopathy should remain for naturopaths today.
Enzyme Therapy, Digestion and
By: Mark A. Brudnak, Ph.D., N.D. & Stephanie G. Hoener, N.D.
Enzyme Therapy (ET) has been practiced successfully for a wide range of disease states. Often, the enzymes used are fungal based because they are effective over a wide range (mostly acidic due to the digestive environment they are formulated to work in) of pHs. This has been fruitful. In fact, many of the enzymes used are touted for their ability to function well in the gastric environment and are considered useful for that purpose. However, what has been ignored is that there are diseases that can be associated with having too low a pH in the body. This paper discusses the formulation of an enzyme supplement that can be used to alter the pH of the body. The implications of this are staggering and will certainly garner much attention over the next few years. Additionally, data is presented demonstrating that the special, food grade enzymes can work in an alkaline environment. The present work demonstrates the feasibility of creating an enzyme system capable of being functional at higher pHs and the possibility that the pH change can have a genomeceutical effect.1
Acidosis is a state where the pH of the blood is abnormally low (blood is usually at a pH of 7.3). Webster’s states it is "an abnormal condition characterized by reduced alkalinity of the blood and of the body tissues."2 There are a large number of clinical conditions which have been associated with acidosis.3
For instance, inhibition of mesangial iNOS by reduced extracellular pH is associated with uncoupling of NADPH oxidation. Chronic renal failure is associated with metabolic acidosis and down-regulation of intrarenal nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. It has been hypothesized that acidosis may impair the intrarenal NO synthesis. The effects of alterations in extracellular pH were examined on inducible NO synthesis in murine mesangial cells (MMC) in culture. It was shown that acidosis impairs iNOS activity in MMC by a posttranslational mechanism that involves uncoupling of NADPH oxidation.
Acidosis has also been implicated in childhood diseases.4 Mitochondrial cytopathies are caused by genetic alteration of nuclear or mitochondrial encoded genes involved in the synthesis of subunits of the electron transport chain. Mutations of mitochondrial DNA are associated with a wide range of clinical presentations. Typically, the pathology is so complex it has been hard to ferret out exactly what is happening. However, it is well known that nucleic acids require a defined pH range to function correctly. Indeed, if the pH around DNA is altered too significantly, the actual shape and therefore function of the DNA can be affected. During metabolic acidosis, increased renal ammoniagenesis and bicarbonate synthesis are sustained by the increased expression of various transport proteins and key enzymes of glutamine metabolism. Altering the pH may be a way of using a genomceutical1 to change the expression of desirable enzymes.4
Also in children, initial screenings include tests for acidosis. Neuro-degenerative diseases in children6 and other diseases have been linked to acid-based problems.7 Genetic disorders of acid-based transporters involve plasmalemmal and organellar transporters of H(+), HCO3(-), and Cl(-).
Interestingly, acidosis is not always one of the first things checked. There have been reports of dyspnea, which actually appeared more as renal tubular acidosis (RTA). It may be that some diagnoses of congestive heart failure, asthma exacerbations or both may be due to acidosis.8
In addition to children, it should be emphasized that renal tubular acidosis (RTA), renal insufficiency, aldosterone deficiency, in old age with reduced renal mass and function, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitor therapy, may be at high risk of developing these severe and potentially life threatening complications from acidosis.9
Historically, renal tubular acidosis (RTA) has been classified on a clinical basis, without any reference to the underlying disorder. Here we review the normal mechanisms of renal acidification and we identify disorders of specific transporters (genetic, disease related or drug-induced) that lead to the main categories of distal RTA. We also describe the approach to diagnosis and the current treatment of distal RTA.
Acidosis has also been linked to intestinal injury10 by investigating the pathogenic mechanism(s) of small intestinal injury during acidosis in relation to circulating nitric oxide (NO) in an experimental rat model. They showed that the pathogenic mechanisms of acidosis-induced small intestinal lesions involve up-regulation of NO production by increased expression of iNOS and augmentation of superoxide radicals and MPO activity.
Rarer still are reports of other forms of acidosis such as those caused by Multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.11 Treatment options that could raise the systemic pH and also supply the afflicted enzymes would be highly advantageous.
Certain antiseizure of antiepileptic drugs, such as Topiramate, also appear to be able to induce acidosis as a possible side effect. Such side effects could be eliminated if the drugs were administered while the system was being buffered
Attempts to Block Acidosis
There have been a variety of attempts to block acidosis. Some such attempts to block acidosis have been rather unique and exotic such as the use of antisense mRNA to reduce lactate dehydrogenase.12
Another attempt has been to simply take antacids or bicarbonates.13 14 These can be effective but carry their own side effects such as constipation, diarrhea, etc. In infants, typically a bicarbonate level of oral sodium bicarbonate (1-2 mmol/kg) can be used.15
At present, the science of Enzyme Therapy (ET) is very limited. Usually, ET consists of using enzymes that function optimally over an acidic range. This is done because most of the therapy is thought to be derived from digestion of substrates along the lumen of the GI tract.16 This has proven to be very successful. However, at present, there is also a need for enzymes to be able to function, in diseased states, and ideally raise the blood pH at the same time. For this reason, an enzyme formula was created to address this issue. The idea of using a base for the treatment of acidemia is not novel,17 however, the combination with ET is.
AIDS is a disease which often leads to states of acidosis and eventual complications including liver failure. Treatment options have been limited and there is a dire need for products which can rebalance the body’s pH.18 High doses of riboflavin and thiamine may help in secondary prevention of hyperlactatemia. These naturally occurring compounds have found a place in the treatment of complications due to AIDS.19 20
During exercise-induced metabolic acidosis, intravenous administration of bicarbonate increased the buffering capacity of blood and attenuated the decrease in intracellular muscle pH, although there has been observed a small increase in the arterial carbon dioxide pressure.21 22 Again, the side effects are still rather unpleasant.
The present study looks at a novel enzyme composition consisting of an amylase, lipase, two proteases (one alkaline and one acidic), Phytase, and a buffer system. The purpose of the first four enzymes is to mimic the body’s own pancreatin. The Phytase is added to assist in the liberation of divalent cations, often needed by enzymes for proper functionality. The buffer system contents are similarly designed to include many of the nutritional factors required by enzymes (e.g., zinc and other metals) while at the same time maintain a slightly basic pH. The theory being that if a body is in a state of acidosis, the endogenous enzymes may not be functioning properly. These enzymes need to be exogenously supplied. Since we are also trying to support an increase in pH, the enzymes chosen, function over a broad pH range. We also designed a buffer system that complements the functionality of the enzymes.
Data is presented on the functionality of the entire system on various substrates. Additionally, data is presented on the ability of the system to raise the pH of urine from a volunteer.
Materials and Methods
The measurement of pH: All measurements of pH were done using a pHydrion INSTA-CHEK 0-13, Micro Essential Laboratory, Brooklyn, New York 11210 USA.
Enzymes: A Vegetarian enzyme Makzyme-Ezmed, was formulated from a fungal source to have four times the activity of that listed by USP/NF for pancreatin. This formula, Makzyme-Ezmed, has an effective pH range from 3-8 for the amylase, protease, and lipase in it. However, because the protease does not function very well at higher pH (above 5) an additional protease was employed. An alkaline protease (MAK-AP) (MAK Wood, Grafton, Wisconsin) was supplied with an effective pH of 6-10. Also, a Phytase was added to the formulation at 25PU.
Buffer system: A buffer system had to be created that could support the activities of the enzymes and that would also be able to raise the urine pH after oral ingestion of the enzymes. The buffer, MAKTechTM Enzymeoptimizer (MAK Wood, Inc. Grafton, Wisconsin) was chosen because it is known to not just have an alkaline pH but also to be a good buffer containing many of the cofactors (calcium, magnesium, zinc, etc.) that many enzymes require.
Substrate digestion: In the first step, precooked, packaged noodles were obtained from a local store in bulk. Roughly, one quarter of the material was used for each of the two runs. Each run consisted of testing either plain noodles in water or plain noodles in water plus the Enzyme Preparation above. The reaction beakers were allowed to incubate at 37C for varying time from 0-8 hours.
Because of the data from the first experiment, another step was taken. The second step was to add 20X the amount of enzyme to the mixture (test beaker) and allow the noodles to continue to incubate.
Because little or no breakdown of the noodles was observed, it was reasoned that even though in theory all the enzymes required to break down a product such as dried, fried noodles, there was little observable effect, even after eight hours of incubation. This surprising result suggested several possibilities. The first was that the enzymes were no good. The second was that something in the buffer inhibited all the enzymes present. The third was that the substrate was, for whatever reason, not digestible by typical enzymes used in ET.
Because it was known that the second enzymes to be added were extremely functional (data not shown) in a similar assay but different substrate, we ruled out number one. The second and third possibilities were addressed by a simple third experiment. Here, a cracker was added to both a beaker with the Enzymeoptimizer Buffer and a beaker of water. Pictures were taken at various intervals. Photographs were scanned on a Microtek Scanner using the highest resolution setting.
Urine analysis: The pH of a volunteer was checked pre- and post-supplementation with the system. The pH paper was held in the urine stream until saturated and then recorded photographically. Photographs were scanned as above.
The initial step in creating a digestive enzyme formulation that can function at a basic pH is to decide on the enzymes to use. Fungal enzymes known to function over a broad enough pH range to include that of the buffer system to be used, were chosen. Those chosen were a Vegetarian Pancreatin and an Alkaline protease.
Having chosen the enzymes, simple chemistry dictates that a basic buffer would be required to raise the pH of a solution from an acidic level to one which is slightly basic. As stated in the introduction, common methods of doing this are to use a buffer such as sodium bicarbonate.
Figure 1 shows pH paper that has been dipped in either H20 (left) or H20 plus Buffer. As can be seen, the buffer is able to raise the pH of the solution above that of ordinary water. More importantly, the buffer raises the pH above that of 7.0 to a basic level.
However, because the objective was not only to raise the pH of a system but also to have functional enzymes, many of which require metal cofactors, a buffering system was chosen that contains many of those nutritional requirements. Because enzymes themselves can be acidic, it was necessary to make sure the buffering system plus enzymes were still able to provide a basic solution when orally consumed.
Figure 2 shows the results of pH paper dipped into two solutions. The paper on the left is that of only H20. The paper on the right has been dipped into H20 with buffer and the enzymes. As can be seen, the test solution (one with buffer and enzymes) is able to maintain a basic pH. Figures 2C and D are replicates of A and B, respectively. This was done to ensure reproducibility.
To assay for functionality of the enzymes in the buffer, Asian noodles were chosen because it was thought they would provide an easily viewed qualitative form of digestion. Figures 1A and B show the appearance of the noodles at time zero, either in plain water or in H2O plus buffer and enzymes. As can be seen, there was no initial visual difference in appearance between the two groups
Figure 2 shows the results of pH paper dipped into two solutions. The paper on the left is that of only H20. The paper on the right has been dipped into H20 with buffer and the enzymes. As can be seen, the test solution (one with buffer and enzymes) is able to maintain a basic pH. Figures 2C and D are replicates of A and B, respectively. This was done to ensure reproducibility.
Figures 3A and B show the Asian-style noodles at the beginning of the experiment. As can be seen, there is no observable difference in the integrity of the control (A) or the experimental (B) beakers.
Figure 4A,B,C, & D show the same reaction beakers at: A) H20 and noodles after 15 mins; B) H20, buffer Enzymes, after 15 minutes; C) same as (A) but after one hour; D) Same as (B) but after one hour. As can be seen, there was very little visible digestion of the noodles even after one hour.
Because it was conceivable that the enzymes were not functional, another group of enzymes known to work in a similar system were added to the noodles and the reaction was allowed to proceed for eight hours with 20 times the previous levels of enzymes added to the mixture. Again, there was little noticeable digestion of the noodles. However, the noodles in the enzyme-treated group did appear slightly more separated and the solution became slightly more cloudy with some sedimentation.
At this point, it was suspected that the buffer was inhibiting the enzymes. To test this, a second round of incubations, exactly the same as the first were performed, with the exception that the test material was a Ritz cracker and not the Asian-style noodles. Figure 5 A,B,C,D, & E show the following results: A) The pH is buffered. The strip on the left is plain H20. The strip on the right is H20 plus Makzyme-Ezmed and Maktech Enzymeoptimizer. B) shows the cracker is not digested at all after 15 minutes in H20. C) shows that the cracker is visibly digested in H20. Buffer, and Enzymes and demonstrates that the enzymes are indeed functional in the buffering system. Figures 5 D & E are side views of B&C, respectively. Clearly, the pH buffer and enzymes function in concert to digest some foods. Discussion is given below to the inability to digest the Asian noodles compared to the cracker.
Supplemental enzymes have been shown effective in prior systems for conditions ranging from autism to vitamin and mineral deficiencies.23 The present work explores the possibility of using a novel buffer system to allow enzymes to function at higher pH and at the same time, work to alter the body’s pH level.
The treatment of clinical acidosis has been shrouded in controversy for decades. This is principally due to the primary treatment being bicarbonate infusion in response to indirect measurements that are calculated rather than obtained directly. While both sides of the debate have valid points, it makes sense that given a standard blood pH being slightly alkaline, then ingestion of a neutral or slightly basic solution would not aggravate acidosis and could only assist. Also, if the solution was able to assist with digestion, that may be altered by an exacerbated aid-base imbalance in the body, that too would be beneficial.
In the present study we attempted to look at the feasibility of creating an enzyme supplement consisting of a variety of enzymes that reflect a typical pancreatic output in response to food intake. A fungal-based enzyme supplement that was functional at slightly basic pH was established along with a novel buffer system to maintain the slightly basic pH.
Initial tests of the functionality of the enzymes suggested that perhaps the enzymes would not work in a basic environment, even though theoretically, they should. The substrate for the enzymes consisted of Asian-style noodles. Typically, these noodles are boiled before eating to ensure they are cooked. This was not done and is suspected to be the problem. It had been assumed that the noodles would be at least partially digestible in the relatively massive amount of enzymes that were applied, however, this was incorrect. Little if any, digestion of the substrate occurred. As it turned out, this made for a good negative control of the process.
What is really striking is the need to boil these types of noodles first. At least, it is presumed that boiling would correct the inability to digest them. The inability of the enzymes to digest the uncooked noodles was truly not expected. The authors will let the readers extrapolate as to the implications of this result, however, it should be said that much of the modern food supply is processed. Such processing obviously can interfere with the endogenous enzymes and their functionality. That should be considered when designing a proper diet.
The second half of the study looked at the same principle but used a different substrate. This time, one that was thought to be much easier to digest was chosen, a Ritz cracker. Under the same experimental conditions as with the first substrate, the cracker was easily digested within 15 minutes. This demonstrated that both the pH was maintained to be slightly basic and that the enzymes were functional. As to what degree of functionality, it could be argued that it is limited based on the first substrate. However, we believe this is incorrect as the initial substrate was fortuitously not properly prepared and as such, was a good control. The slightly cloudy solution of the test beaker and the sedimentation in the same are suspected to be the result of partial digestion and just the enzymes falling out of solution.
In summary, a novel enzyme preparation has been created and established to be functional in a slightly basic, buffered system. In theory, the enzymes could be altered to include or exclude a large variety, though those with a basic pH optimum would function better. In addition, the present system of buffer and enzymes could be used not just for digestive support, but also in cases where acid-base imbalances are thought to be affecting metabolic activities, especially those involving enzymes. The afflicted enzymes could be exogenously supplied along with the buffering system. Future experiments should be designed to look at the feasibility of this. For instance, the conversion of creatine to creatinine in the body occurs rapidly in an acidic environment. Such a situation would deplete the phospho-creatine pool that acts as a reservoir for high-energy phosphates. Adding creatine kinase to the buffer system would be one such possibility.
Given these results, we have begun designing enzyme supplements to support the digestive functions of autisitics, AIDS, cancer, diarrhea, Down Syndrome, lactose maldigestion/intolerance, and a wide variety of other conditions. It should even be possible, based on simple tests, to tailor one, two, or three supplements to an entire subpopulation. The next 20 years will be exciting times for those of us who have been involved with enzymes from the beginning.
Healthy Living Naturally, LLC
The following Are Biographies & Subjects of Two Speakers at The 22nd Annual ANMA Convention
Richard Adrouny, M.D.
Dr. adrouny is the author of Understanding Colon Cancer, he operates a private medical practice specializing in internal medicine, medical oncology and hematology. He is also a medica-legal consultant and a freelance medical author.
Dr. Adrouny received his M.D. and Master’s Degree in Public Health from Tulane University, and completed his post graduate training at University of Southern California, University of California, Los Angeles, and Kaiser Medical Centers in Los Angeles. He is board certified in Internal Medicine and Medical Oncology.
Dr. Adrouny is recognized as an expert in his field, and has been published in numerous medical journals and lay publications on a variety of topics ranging from eosinophilic leukemia to hormone therapy.
He is an American College of Physicians Fellow, and he received recognition in the "Who’s Who in the West" 1987-1988 edition.
TOPIC TITLE: Understanding Colon Cancer
For decades, while other cancers grabbed the headlines, Colorectal cancer was quietly ignored. The lifetime risk of colorectal cancer in the general population is 2.5 to 5 percent. This means that 25-50 out of 1,000 people will be stricken by this disease. Although data shows that in America colorectal cancer incidence and mortality have been waning in recent decades, cancers of the colon and rectum still cause approximately 40,000 deaths annually. About 140,000 new cases of cancer are diagnosed each year and colon cancer constitutes a large portion of new cases. Focus on prevention, early detection, and treatments.
Ted H Spence, D.D.S., N.D.
Dr. Spence has practiced family dentistry for twenty-six years and has several degrees in nutrition, naturopathy and herbology. Dr. Spence is board certified and licensed in naturopathy and is an adjunct faculty professor at the Clayton School of Natural Healing. Dr. Spence studied natural methods of healing in Mexico (1999) and is on the editorial board of Naturopathic Physician, NMD Magazine and the honorary board of the Weston Price Foundation.
Dr. Spence is also a member of American Academy of Biological Dentists, International Academy of Oral Medicine and Toxicology and American Naturopathic Medical Association. He is on the boards of Families for Natural Living and the Weston Price Foundation, both of which are dedicated to educating the public about proper choices in nutrition and health. Dr. Spence is a Fellow with the British Institute of Homeopathy and a Fellow with the American Council of Applied Clinical Nutrition.
BS - Biology
TOPIC TITLE: Fluoride: Toxin or Nutrient?
We are told that fluoride might prevent tooth decay, but we are not told that fluoride has been linked to cancer and mutagenic changes in osteoporosis. Nutrition for the prevention of tooth decay will also be discussed.
The new "Renaissance" Natural Health Center in San Antonio, Texas has three immediate openings for ‘qualified’ interns. Experience in energy, nutrition, lymphatics and/or detoxification therapy is a plus. You will find our methods to be ‘different’, ‘simpler’ and considerably ‘more effective’. This is a unique opportunity to gain experience from the ‘ground up’. Learn to ‘work smart’ and prepare to establish your own successful practice. Exceptional individuals may be given an opportunity to stay-on and join our staff. For more information and details contact Bruce Marx, N.D. at: 210-626-2546, or visit our new web site at: http://www.detoxtexas.com.
The views and opinions expressed in this online newsletter are not necessarily those of the American Naturopathic Medical Association, its officers or its members, nor are they necessarily in accordance or agreement with its policies.